The most critical parameter in defining target acquisition for radar and spectral integrity in communication systems is phase noise. This application note discusses the importance of phase noise, and what can be done to lessen its effects in microwave systems.
The spectrum analyzer is used for the measurement of many characteristics of pulsed radar signals, including pulse width, occupied bandwidth, duty cycle, and peak average power. These devices are also capable of detection transmitter misfiring and frequency pulling effects. This white paper will discuss the operation of spectrum and signal analyzers, as well as explain the correct interpretations of their displayed pulse spectra.
TETRA, the TErrestrial Trunked RAdio, is the professional mobile radio standard (PMR) used worldwide by governmental safety and security authorities and organizations, as well as by private utilities from energy suppliers through to transport. This article shows examples for measurements with Rohde & Schwarz instruments covering the entire range of TETRA test requirements.
Frequency hopping is one of the most common methods to avoid interference and to increase security. This application note provides basic information about frequency and phase settling time measurements and how the measurement is implemented inside modern phase noise analyzers, complete with measurement examples and explanations.
The concept of load-pull simulation is where a load or source impedance is swept by an active device and its performance is measured. Recently, advancements have been made to data file formats by load-pull measurement system vendors to expand the usefulness of load-pull characterization. These new file formats support a sweep of an independent variable such as input power, DC bias, temperature, or tone spacing, in addition to the swept source or load impedance. The NI AWR Design Environment™ software enables designers to import and manipulate these load pull data sets in a circuit simulator which greatly simplifies and speeds the design process, and gives them a broader design space to explore. This white paper covers in-depth information on how to use enhanced load-pull measurements for base station power amplifier designs.