Passive Intermodulation (PIM) is a distortion that can occur when electrical nonlinearities within a system act as unintentional mixers at cell sites, communications satellites, and in wireless networks.
Pulsed signals are widespread in radar and other EW applications, and they must be accurately measured for manufacturing, design of countermeasures, and threat assessment. However, pulse measurements are an especially challenging area for signal analysis due to a combination of factors. This application note will discuss the best tools for different types of pulse analysis, along with display and analysis techniques for various signals and measurement goals. This note also will cover key signal acquisition and processing technologies such as IF and frequency mask triggering, signal capture, and post-processing.
This white paper provides details on the POLQA® (Perceptual Objective Listening Quality Assessment) algorithm. According to the recommendation of International Telecommunications Union, POLQA® is the next generation mobile voice quality testing standard. An example hardware setup for standard independent audio measurements is also included in the white paper. By Rohde & Schwarz
Many spectrum analyzers can detect phase noise levels automatically, making phase noise measurements a task without much thought. This paper discusses key aspects in determining phase noise measurements, and presents formulas and examples that may be used for simplifying measurements.